In the 13th century the interest in birds was still strongly connected to hunting, when the emperor Friedrich the Second wrote a book with the name “About the art to hunt with birds”. This focus already changed during the 16th century. At that time Conrad Gessner tried to describe and categorize all birds. This tradition was intensified by some zoologists in Germany during the 19th century: Johann Friedrich Naumann is regarded to be one of the founders of Europe’s ornithologists. In twelve volumes he dealt with the nature history of birds in all details. Christian Ludwig Brehm continued with it and contributed with important descriptions regarding the taxonomy. His well-known son Alfred Brehm inherited his records and added behavioral studies as a further perspective.
In England, George Edwards founded the ornithological history with exact descriptions of the different bird species during the 18th century and delivered with this a decisive basis for Carl von Linné’s scientific descriptions. Latest at the end of the 19th century, the scientific ornithology and the protection of birds found its recognition thanks to Hans Freiherr von Berlepsch. He committed himself to protect their habitats. The time when birds were haunted and examined in a stuff form became slowly history. It was now about watching birds and leave them undisturbed to watch their behavior. Anyhow, this was not so easy without the right optics. The German zoologist Oskar Heinroth and his wife Magdalena started a rather unorthodox project, which is very well described in the bird “The bird collective”. They brought up 250 bird species of Europe in their apartment in Berlin to describe their behavior.